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DPUP — Principles in practice

This tool sets out a series of questions for each of the 5 DPUP Principles to help you think through how to apply them in your agency.

He Tāngata

  • Is the purpose for collecting or using data or information clearly focused on improving people’s wellbeing?
  • Is all this data or information necessary, or is there another approach that would use less or only use things that can’t identify people?
  • Is the purpose written in a way that others, including service users, can understand and explain?
  • Have checks and balances been used when deciding how fair, reasonable and respectful it is to use this data or information in this way and for this purpose? Were stakeholders, including service users, involved?
  • Is it clear what laws or agreements and so on allow the collection or use for this purpose?

He Tāngata Principle


Respect and uphold the mana and dignity of the people, whānau, communities or groups who share their data and information.

  • Has a te ao Māori perspective been included?
  • Have service users, whānau or communities been involved in planning what to use and how to use it?
  • Have they been involved in using and making sense of the data and information?
  • Has the context — the circumstances, needs and experiences of those the data or information is about — been taken into account?
  • Have steps been put in place to guard against data and information being misinterpreted or used in a way that might reinforce prejudice or bias?
  • Have the perspectives of important groups like Pacific communities, disabled people, children and young people, or refugees and migrants been taken into account?

Manaakitanga Principle

Mana Whakahaere

Empower people by giving them choice and enabling their access to and use of their data and information.

  • Are explanations available for service users (and anyone who collects the information and data) about what information is needed, why it’s needed and how it will be used?
  • Do the explanations cover what will be used in a way that does or can identify people, and what will be used that cannot or will not identify people?
  • Have service users been provided with as many choices as possible around what data or information is collected about them and how it’s used, even if it does not or cannot identify them?
  • Are there easy-to-use ways for service users to access their personal information and ask for corrections to be made?
  • Are there explanations for service users about how the collection or use of their data or information will help them or people in similar situations?
  • Are responsibilities clear and agreed between partners for telling service users what they need to know about how to access their information and how requests for corrections are managed?

Mana Whakahaere Principle


Act as a steward in a way that people understand and trust.

  • Have obligations been met to uphold people’s mana and act as a kaitiaki, even where there is no direct contact with the service users, whānau or communities who the information is about?
  • Is the way data or information is collected or used building trust between New Zealanders and your organisation or profession?
  • Is there a ‘no surprises’ approach to collecting or using data or information for service users, whānau, communities or other agencies?
  • Has the impact on trust, mana and respect been fully considered in any decision not to explain to people how their personal or non-personal data and information will be used?
  • Are people’s data and information kept safe and protected?
  • Are there plans to safely share information about different communities or the insights created using their information?

Kaitiakitanga Principle


Work as equals to create and share valuable knowledge.

  • Have others with expertise, such as community representatives, service providers, frontline personnel, cultural experts or funding and contracting providers been involved in deciding what to collect or how to use it?
  • If other teams, agencies, professionals or groups collect or share the information you use, have they got explanations about what’s been done with the information and why?
  • Have partners agreed what will be shared with each other and with those who provide information or data, such as insights or de-identified data, explanations of how it was used or access to analysis?
  • Have others such as community representatives, service providers, frontline personnel, cultural experts or funding and contracting providers been involved in 'doing the doing' and using data or information?
  • Has there been a focus on building skills for collecting or using data and information?

Mahitahitanga Principle

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